chogha zanbil facts

[6] In 1979, Chogha Zanbil became the first Iranian site to be inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Though the ziggurat now stands only 24.75 metres (81.2 ft) high, less than half its estimated original height, its state of preservation is unsurpassed. Please check the original source(s) for copyright information. As noted, Elam’s population was diverse, held together by a common language but apparently differing in customs and religious beliefs or, at least, which gods of the Elamite-Mesopotamian pantheon they chose to elevate. Because of the solidity of its construction, this is the best-preserved ziggurat in the Near east. The ziggurat was given a facing of baked bricks, a number of which have cuneiform characters giving the names of deities in the Elamite and Akkadian languages. The kings of the Sukkalmah Dynasty of Elam (c. 1970 - c. 1770 BCE) provided the stability that would allow the rulers of the next period to concentrate more on domestic policies and building projects than defense of their homeland from invasion. 13th century BCE. (186). The ziggurat originally measured 105.2 metres (345 ft) on each side and about 53 metres (174 ft) in height, in five levels, and was crowned with a temple. Although Chogha Zanbil was abandoned shortly after Untash-Napirisha’s death, it continued to serve as a place of pilgrimage until c. 1000 BCE, after which it was forgotten. Its modern name, Chogha Zanbil, dates to about this time as the shape of the complex was thought to resemble an upside-down woven basket. Ornamenting the most important buildings were thousands of baked bricks bearing inscriptions with Elamite cuneiform characters were all inscribed by hand. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. '[4] It was built about 1250 BC by the king Untash-Napirisha, mainly to honor the great god Inshushinak. It took its multi-layered form in the second phase. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. It lies approximately 30 km (19 mi) south-east of Susa and 80 km (50 mi) north of Ahvaz. Even so, their cuneiform inscriptions and documents (found primarily at Susa) are incomplete and so a large swath of Elamite history is only known from Sumerian, Akkadian, and Assyrian records which often give brief descriptions without elaboration. Although Chogha Zanbil has a square shape, the pyramid form of it represents moving up toward the gods, and that is why the core building of this structure is dedicated to the god. [12], Profile view of Dur Untash Zigurat structure, Similar Zigurat structures in Iraq: The ziggurat of Dur-Kurigalzu, Similar Zigurat structures in Iraq: Ziggurat of Ur, The Ziggurat at Chogha Zanbil is one of the main Ziggurats, Glazed (originally blue) door plaque with boss. Untash-Napirisha first dedicated the monument only to Insushinak in order to draw worshippers (as well as commerce and prestige) away from Susa, the god’s patron city, to his own in which the Insushinak ziggurat would be the centerpiece (as per the model of Mesopotamian cities). Its original name was Dur Untash, which means 'town of Untash' in Assyrian, but it is unlikely that many people, besides priests and servants, ever lived there. Embedded by Joshua J. Glazed terracotta statues such as bulls and winged griffins guarded the entrances to the ziggurat. However they envisioned the afterlife, and whatever they believed their gods could do for them in assuring them of safe passage, one aspect of their religious devotion (common to all ancient cultures) was monumental building projects which would preserve their name, associate that name with their deity of choice, and thereby ensure that they would be remembered by future generations; this was the inspiration behind the construction of the temple complex of Chogha Zanbil. The focus of the religion seems to have been the afterlife. After the ziggurat, the temples, shrines, and houses for the priests were built in an area of around 100 hectares which was enclosed by a concentric wall two miles (4 km) long which was then ringed by two others. Initially, based on statuary and impressions, it seems the Elamites worshipped a mother goddess – perhaps even a triad of female deities – who most likely were combined in the figure of Kiririsha who is often associated with Insushinak and Humban but is also depicted as the consort/wife of Napirisha.

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