density of crude oil in lb/ft3

Deviation of the experimental from the predictive values using the high-temperature model (T > 100 °C), Assessment of the measured viscosity data with the proposed models on randomly selected samples with different API values, Bar chart for the R 1987). 0 is the dilute gas viscosity, ρ is the molar density, b′ is the co-volume, χ is the value of the equilibrium radial distribution function at a distance equal to the molecular diameter from the center of an individual molecule, and T After multiple regression analysis of all the experimental viscosity data, and using many forms for a viscosity equation as a function of density and temperature, the results show that the following functional form was set to be presented the data in this work. b), as shown in Table 2. od is the density of the dead oil in kg m−3, μ Before developing the new viscosity model, understanding the relationship between the input and output variables is essential; specifically, identifying which parameters are insignificant and can be eliminated from the final model and the parameters that are highly correlated with the output. One of the main challenges in this study is that most of the existing models in the literature are limited to certain ranges of temperature, API value, and viscosity. Two other models by Hosain et al. c, and ω) are calculated using the correlations developed by (Kesler and Lee 1976). Only emails and answers are saved in our archive. The goal was to create models in the following formats for the density and viscosity predictions. The principal objective of this paper is to obtain exact models that can successfully predict these two important fluid properties covering a wide range of temperatures. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kartoatmodjo T, Schmidt Z (1994) Large data bank improves crude physical property correlation. J Pet Sci Eng 47:163–174, Peng DY, Robinson DB (1976) A new two-constant equation of state. density of oil, petroleum is equal to 881 kg/m³. Online calculator. 1987; Little & Kennedy 1968; Lohrenz et al. The College of Earth and Mineral Sciences is committed to making its websites accessible to all users, and welcomes comments or suggestions on access improvements. Therefore, a real physical property was selected as the intermediate parameter, such as density, and the density was modeled using API and temperature. The latter generally requires access to a process simulator and characterization data for the crude oil. The values were evaluated and tested using different techniques, such as curve fitting, nonlinear regression, and the square method. The relationship between viscosity and temperature for randomly selected samples with different API values (high, medium, and low) at normal and high temperatures is shown in Fig. We don't save this data. The standard measuring temperature is 15°C or 60°F. Get more help from Chegg Get 1:1 help now from expert Chemical Engineering tutors Obtaining reliable viscosity and density measurements can be difficult, especially for live oil. In addition, Kartoatmodjo and Schmidt (1994) developed an empirical correlation to predict the viscosity of dead oil with 3588 data points from 661 dead oil samples that covered gravities ranging from 14.4° to 58.9°API, viscosities ranging from 0.5 to 682 cP, and temperatures ranging from 75 to 320 °F. Banff, Alberta, Canada: CIM, Naseri A, Nikazar M, Mousavi-dehghani SA (2005) A correlation approach for prediction of crude oil viscosity. Fuel Density@15 C - ρ -Specific Volume - v - (kg/m 3) (lb/ft 3) (m 3 /1000 kg) (ft 3 per ton) Anthracite 720 - 850 45 - 53 1.2 - 1.4 42 - 50 Bituminous coal 690 - 800 43 - 50 1.2 - 1.5 45 - … en: api gravity specific weight density crude oil petroleum. The calibration was done at the temperatures of interest by using ultrapure water. Part of Springer Nature. 2 for each case. The model created by Standing in 1947 gave the most acceptable results among the ten published models. AddThis use cookies for handling links to social media. To check the ability of the proposed viscosity model to present all experimental data, cross plots of the measured and predicted viscosity values were used. Annual technical meeting of the petroleum society of CIM, 93–95. The crude oil samples were mixed with an emulsion breaker (commercial-grade Nalco demulsifier), centrifuged to remove the traces of basic sediments and water (BS&W), and finally the samples were maintained in an oven at 40 °C. The most common definition of heavy crude oil is crude oil with API gravity less than 20, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA) and US geological survey (USGS). sc is the measured density at standard conditions kg m−3. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. API is devised jointly by the American Petroleum Institute and the NIST - National Institute of Standards and Technology. It is divided into grades ranging from light, which has a density of around 790 kg/m3, to extra heavy, which has a density of around 970 kg/m3. Crude oil is classified as light or heavy oil based on different physical properties, such as molecular weight, viscosity, density, and API gravity. and Elsharkawy and Alikhan (1999) have correlation coefficients of (0.91) and (0.89), respectively. Triplicate density measurements were performed for all the samples. The proposed model and the literature models were tested on heavy oil samples. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the main parameters (viscosity μ, density ρ, and temperature T) for all the experimental data (Table 5). This division drastically increased the accuracy of the model and reduced its relative error. Please read Google Privacy & Terms for more information about how you can control adserving and the information collected. Some models present a relatively high value of R Google use cookies for serving our ads and handling visitor statistics. The reliability and accuracy of the data from the density measurements were checked by comparing the experimental values with the predicted values using (1) standing density model and (2) the proposed density model. Prior to the analysis, each sample was shaken vigorously using open-air platform shakers to achieve homogeneity. The results based on these numbers were randomly divided between training and testing parts in a ratio of 3:1. Recent developments in improved oil technologies have increased the demand for heavy oil in the international market. 1964). The ASTM indicates that dead oil viscosity is labeled according to its standard API at 15.5 °C. A total of 30 heavy oil samples of different API gravities ranging from 11.7 to 18.8 were tested. By contrast, the other models have a very wide distribution, which indicates that these models can be applied to these data only within the limitations of each model. Fuel 78:891–903, Glaso O (1980) Generalized pressure–volume–temperature correlation for crude oil system. Heavy crude oil (or extra heavy crude oil) is highly-viscous oil that cannot easily flow to production wells under normal reservoir conditions.. Another way of evaluating the density model is by applying the cubic equation of state (EoS) that was developed by (Peng and Robinson 1976). Osamah Alomair. In this work, a temperature range between 20 C and 160 C was set to perform the experimental measurements of viscosity and density of the dead oil samples.

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