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Deprived of cognitive function, visuality according to the retinalist model indulges the pure optical stimuli of rapid and kaleidoscopic retinal sensations. The conception of the shape of any given object, gained in this manner, is the result of associating all these visual images…. . In prying the tactile form of the frame from its corresponding color, it seems that Delaunay is intent on showing not simply the structure of painting but also how it relates to the structure of the viewer’s vision. The surrounding sky blue pushes back into space, and the two small dashes of green on the bottom of the frame ground the tower in neighboring buildings. Commenting on entry number 868, Delaunay’s La ville de Pans, Burkley wrote, “The Cubists, who occupy only a room, have multiplied. This simultaneously supports the viewer as a free and sovereign individual and universa\lizes the observer as an interchangeable position openly available to anyone. The shape of Delaunay’s First Disk, unlike that of Stella’s stripe paintings, is additionally structured according to the viewer’s vision-to the circular radius of the viewer’s optical cone, whose circumference delimits vision prior to its peripheral distortion. On the contrary, they are generally considered as differing, more or less among themselves, although we recognize the impression they separately produce as comprising that which we ascribe to red.57, Looking onto a field of contiguous colored planes, we perceive what appear to be discrete colors, “we recognize the impression they separately produce as comprising that which we ascribe to red.” But as Chevreul points out, these apparently unified colors are in fact composed of “an indeterminate number of differently colored rays,” which intermingle and vary according to the proximity, hue, brightness, and surface texture of adjacent colors. For as far as the Cubists were concerned, modern optical theory demonstrated conclusively that vision-now understood to be fundamentally different from pure optical information and subject to the vagaries of the body in which it is enmeshed-is not to be trusted. Among the many painters in Germany to come under the sway of Delaunay’s influence was the Swiss artist Paul Klee. In its place developed a modern and heterogeneous regime of vision, one that is grounded, above all else, by the insertion of the body into optical discourses. This model was first put forward in the 1912 Window series, developed further in the 1912 Circular Forms series, and culminated in 1913 with the singular statement of The First Disk. All rights reserved, Elon Musk Questions Reliability of COVID-19 Tests After Receiving Confusing Results, Tesla Releases Winter Tire and Wheel Package for Model Y, NASA Certifies Crew Dragon for Crew-1 Flight. Aug 19, 2012 - Robert Delaunay, Simultaneous Disk (1912-13) As with the view from the tower, we can also learn to make sense of these interlocking rectangular and triangular forms. The diminishing circumference of the painted bands can be seen equally in terms of the body’s movement toward The First Disk and The First Disk’s movement toward the body. The first is that the deficiencies of optic and haptic sense functions compensate for each other as they merge cognitively in the mind. Indeed, he had decided to abandon "images or reality that come to corrupt the order of color.". Oil on canvas. It turns! Gleizes, on the contrary will try to show things in their sensible truth.27. Given this explicit and public disavowal of Cubism-a disavowal already picked up on by critics-what was it exactly, vis–vis Cubism, that Delaunay was disassociating himself from? Describing Delaunay in this review as “an enterprising painter whose influence is perhaps more important than his art, fine as it is,” the influence ascribed to Delaunay, for Greenberg as for art history in general, is duly noted but never substantiated.6, In large part it is the obdurate singularity of The First Disk that frustrates interpretation-a singularity foregrounded by the fact that the paintings leading up to it are neatly bundled into discrete series: the Saint-Svrin series (1909-10); the City series (1909-11); the Eiffel Tower series (1909-12); the City of Paris series (1911-12); the Window series (1912-14); the Cardiff Team series (1913); the Circular Forms series (1913); and then, suddenly and seemingly out of nowhere, The First Disk (1913). Simultaneously marking both the flat, literal surface of the painting and the spatial vectors that have traditionally served as the markers of perspective, the grid fluctuates, back and forth, between the literal form of the painting’s surface and the grid of perspectival vision. The merging of visual and pictorial structure is most immediately evident, however, in the shape of The First Disk. I don’t exhibit. 1912 Simultaneous Windows (2nd Motif, 1st Part) (Les fenêtres simultanées [2e motif, 1re partie]) The Simultaneous Windows series are Delaunay's last semi figurative works before he began experimenting with complete non-objectivity. The ear nestles in the right-hand corner of the base of the tower. Thus, the desired representation comes into being in the spectator’s mind.”52 For Kahnweiler, as for Helmholtz, the viewer combines the known with the seen, such that, as Kahnweiler describes Cubism, we mediate “the two dimensional ‘seen’ with the three dimensional ‘known. This record is a work in progress. Neither quite inside the eye nor quite outside on the surface of the painting, the location of color is perceived indeterminately between The First Disk and the viewer. (Robert Delaunay said that the dress fashioned her as ‘a living sculpture… a sculpture of living forms’). On a structural level, it separates the observer from others, which has the effect of individuating the viewer. . The camera obscura thus became a kind of technological analog to the Cartesian separation of the viewing subject (res cogitans) from the world (res extenso). From the mid-nineteenth century on, seeing becomes instead a physiological and cognitive process that we must learn. That project has concluded, and works are now being identified by MoMA staff. This is seen, for instance, in Delaunay’s first shaped canvas, perhaps the most abstracted work in the series, Les fentres (Fentres ouvertes simultanment 1re partie, 3e motif) Windows (Windows Open Simultaneously, 1st Part, 3rd Motif) (Fig. the new Fibromyalgia Treating by RedOrbit! . The knowledge of optical flatness was indeed so widespread within the critical literature of the mid-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that Adolf Hildebrand felt only a footnote was necessary to remind the reader of this well-established fact: “The reader need hardly be reminded that our actual impression is two-dimensional, a flat picture on the retina.”42 In sum, optical information is understood by modern optical theory to be fundamentally unlike what we actually see. Delaunay’s attempt to rehabilitate vision as the basis for a new pictorial realism must be placed squarely in the context of the modern optical theory explained above. Indeed, it is crucial to the viewing of The First Disk that vision can be aligned to the shape of its outer edge and also with the shape of each of the seven painted bands. Against the backdrop of its preceding work, The First Disk appears as a one-off that, as de Duve describes it, “bursts out violently as something without real precedent in Delaunay’s work.”7, Far from being what Bois calls “a unicum in his oeuvre”-coming out of (and going) nowhere-The First Disk must be situated within Delaunay’s larger project to ground painting in a new optical model. It is necessary to set the record straight.25. Centralizing the physiology of the body in the optical process creates an epistemological rupture at the heart of visual perception. Simultaneous Disc, Eiffel Tower with Trees: בן או בת זוג : סוניה דלוניי : צאצאים: Charles Delaunay "חלונות סימולטניים בעיר", 1912 "נוף בדיסק", 1906. 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