reactions of alkanes pdf

1 Alkanes: Reactions Combustion — Complete combustion: alkane + oxygen —> carbon dioxide + water + HEAT CH4 + 2 O2 —> CO2 + 2 H2O + HEAT C2H6 + 7/2 O2 —> 2 CO2 + 3 H2O + HEAT C3H8 + 5 O2 —> 3 CO2 + 4 H2O + HEAT Incomplete combustion: In … 2 … Unsaturated hydrocarbons, alkenes and alkynes, not only burn, but also react by addition of reagents to the double or triple bonds. 45 . The most important application of alkanes is in oxidation reactions; they are used in internal combustion engines as fuel. Most organic compounds contain a few hydrogens, and sometimes oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, etc. h�T�A�@࿲7]��Y�0D��S�С�ꮸDN��� �)D��!�x^��~������܋�:�&ɿA��0�Qug����i^·Tu U�� U�)PU'T56G[���Qu\ϫ����O�y�$|E�7������;I�u�'����1W�� E�'�݁�,~!ҼM�������/�� e����s�h�)z���puđ�Ƈl軀)OO�Y�. Alkanes are generally in towards acids, bases, oxidizing and reducing agents. All the hydrogens in a complex alkane do not exhibit equal reactivity. Most are made from petroleum. h�ԗmk�0���>n��.J��VV��X�:(��&1$NI\�����:Uv޺l�zH�;I��鱪�e�)�(|�3�S��k5gB�;� +A#�t9tS�[v�]����Uu�)?է۞J���8;]�UM�yvV>���ɴeN��Mՙ�������������iG����#+s�1�9� n�z^���ӫ�e]�^�沜W�>-f�ƨ�j�U{7�.�y9C�uX���-g��i3�U�gWm5�̄����B_oY?��e�%DmDqr������o���}�L��9mVu�}^/W�ٴ\���3c�}���e��dW�_[�b�|�0�������n�?��)��ص�����s�׉�l(^gr���1���9H��p�J�Z�6���8�:h���σ�^��Dž~�u�z�;���iz胤{��C6�O2�M��|d�c.��?� �@~nI�8T�.�����02�at�L�h>Hz�icR�����\��:c$�0�.���r��G��+0:�M�AǓM��KA �K}�*���j�p�k��?��T 1���v�,�|�v+_���W�W�_���׽h�[К���P���� 1. Previous Next. 38 . 8.9 References. Thursday, February 9, 2012. Chapter 1 Alkanes 2 3 4 What Do We Mean By “Organic”? The alkanes and cycloalkanes, with the exception of cyclopropane, are probably the least chemically reactive class of organic compounds. However, it also has the ability to react in the dark. Since σ-bonds are quite strong bonds, alkanes are generally inert towards acids, bases, oxidising and reducing agents. The reactions of the cycloalkanes are generally just the same as the alkanes, with the exception of the very small ones - particularly cyclopropane. Rearrangement Reactions. 1. In the presence of UV light, cyclopropane will undergo substitution reactions with chlorine or bromine just like a non-cyclic alkane. endstream endobj 359 0 obj <>stream The alkanes and cycloalkanes, with the exception of cyclopropane, are probably the least chemically reactive class of organic compounds. 8.7 Alkene Polymers. Our modern society is based to a large degree on the chemicals we discuss in this chapter. endstream endobj 358 0 obj <>stream (TY���2� ��戫�Y�Q �-�c.��-� 5=D Alkanes don’t react with acids/bases or oxidizing agents This is a useful trait and alkanes are used as lubricating agents and the backbone of polymers But when the do react --- Look out! Alkane being saturated compounds can undergo only substitution reactions. These reactions are employed to illustrate how we can predict and use energy changes-particularly AH, the heat evolved or absorbed by a reacting system, which often can be estimated from bond ener- gies. Ż���� U�S��J �M�A5�'P�n�0��wR5 ����Q5��=��Ҁcb�vh� �yx��.������kר 37 Substitution Reactions 37 . Alkane Reactions. Chapter 7: Alkenes: Reactions and Synthesis CC CC HOH CC HH CC XOH CC XX alcohol alkane halohydrin 1,2-dihalide CC HX halide alkene CC HOOH 1,2-diol CC halide C CO carbonyl CC alkene +XY CC XY Elimination Addition Electrophilic Addition Dehydrohalogenation: loss of HX from an alkyl halide to form an alkene + HBr H Br H H H H ether Br H H H +O KOH EtOH (ethanol) H H KBrH2. • In everyday usage, the word organic can be found in several different contexts: – chemicals extracted from plants and animals were originally called “organ ic” because they came from living organisms. h�26�T0P���w�/�+Q0���L)�662�)�I�14SF`^�~HeA�~@bzj��@� ��J 2. Alkanes contain only C−C and C−H σ-bonds. Chapter 1 Alkanes 6 11 What’s So Great About Carbon? Despite their relative inertness, alkanes undergo several important reactions that are discussed in the following section. Despite their relative inertness, alkanes undergo several important reactions that are discussed in the following section. Reactions of Alkanes. paraffins (parum-little affinis-reactivity or affinity). From Alkyl halides Alkyl halides (halogen derivatives of alkanes) can be converted into alkanes by the following methods: a. Wurtz reaction: When an alkyl halide (usually bromide or iodide) is treated with sodium in dry ether, a symmetrical alkane containing twice the … Despite their relative inertness, alkanes undergo several important reactions that are discussed in the following section. •They only contain strong C-C or C-H σ-bonds and since carbon and hydrogen have similar electronegativity, none of the bonds in alkanes is polarized. %PDF-1.6 %���� • Alkanes are less dense than water and swim on top of water 2.1.4 Reactions of Alkanes • In general very un-reactive ⇒ you need a lot of driving force A) Oxidation Example Methane: B) Halogenation Halogenation (a substitution reaction): Introduction of a halogen into a molecule (chlorination, bromination) General Reaction: However, they undergo the following reactions under certain conditions : Substitution reactions. Reactions of Alkanes 8 •Alkanes are generally considered unreactive as they have no functional groups present. 8.8 Chapter Summary. Applying heat and a catalyst can crack larger, more complex alkanes and produce smaller, more useful alkanes and alkenes. • Carbon atoms can form stable bonds to many other elements (H, F, Cl, Br, I, O, N, S, P, etc.). Opening Essay . 38 The Production of Polyethylene. For example, propane has eight hydrogens, six of them being structurally equivalent primary… Alkanes are stable compounds and are generally unreactive. reactions of alkanes then will be discussed, with special emphasis on combus- tion and substitution reactions. 357 0 obj <>stream Reactions of Alkanes The alkanes and cycloalkanes, with the exception of cyclopropane, are probably the least chemically reactive class of organic compounds. HYDROISOMERIZATION OF ALKANES OVER METAL-LOADED ZEOLITE CATALYSTS A thesis submitted to the University of Manchester for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences 2010 RAED H. ABUDAWOOD ... 3.2 Normal Alkanes Reaction … – organic fertilizers are … Despite their relative inertness, alkanes undergo several important reactions that are discussed in the following section. ��L��O�q���i�ə�/=�qhl�w47�۸9)���@�r,vp�R�>� �S���K����H,��F&-�? The halogenation of propane discloses an interesting feature of these reactions. 42 . 1. (Alkanes do undergo a substitution reaction with halogens, but require activation by ultraviolet light to make the reaction proceed). Reactions of Alkanes The alkanes and cycloalkanes, with the exception of cyclopropane, are probably the least chemically reactive class of organic compounds.

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